DEFINISI MULTIMEDIA

Definisi Multimedia

1. ISO 14915 (2001) mendefinisikan multimedia sebagai

� user interfaces that integrate and synchronise different media (static media such as text, graphs and images; and dynamic media such as audio, animation and video)�

Definisi ini menekankan standard yang mesti digunapakai kepada persembahan dan teknik interaksi untuk aplikasi multimedia komputer secara am termasuk yang berdiri dengan sendiri �stand-alone� atau yang terlibat dalam aplikasi jaringan networked applications.

2. Dalam design guide INUSE, European Usability Support Centres (1997) multimedia didefinisikan sebagai

�The use of different input devices and different media, both time dependent (sound, music, voice, video) and time independent (graphics, text) in a system or service (Clarke, 1992). A multimedia system or service may therefore include a combination of text, still images, graphics, video animation, sound and speech as output media. To interact with these elements, the user may use a mouse, tracker ball, joystick, touch screen, pen, stylus, keyboard or speech for input�

3. Dix (1993) mendefinisikan multimedia mengikut perkembangan teknologinya. Diperingkat awal perkembangan multimedia ia boleh diertikan dalam dua konsep tang saling bertukarganti antara sistems �multi-modal� dan �multi-media�. Dix mengambilkira perkembangan melalui sistem interaktif, yang bermula dengan papan kekunci, tetikus sebagai penunjuk, satu skrin paparan dan output bunyi yang terbatas. Dengan kata lain, apabila perkembangan sistem menjadi semakin canggih oleh �multiple communication channels� yang boleh berfungsi serentak, maka wujudlah apa yang dinamakan sebagai multi-media sistem. Sistem ini menggunakan pelbagai media untuk komunikasi dan menyampaikan maklumat samada maklumat pelengkap, tambahan atau ulangan melalui saluran input atau output.

Sistem yang direka pada masa sekarang banyak mengikut keperluan pancaindera manusia �the multiple sensory channels of humans� dan lain-lain bentuk input visual �types of visual inputs� seperti �textual, graphical, iconic, animation, video and CD-I.� (Dix. (1993)). Semenjak 1993 hingga ini fungsi �functionality� multimedia telah bertambah dengan lebih pesat lagi yang menyebabkan penambahan saluran interaksi manusia dengan komputer �bandwidth of human-computer interaction� termasuk interaksi antara dua muka �interface� pengguna istimewa dan reality maya �virtual reality�.

4. Preece (1994) mendefinisi multimedia mengikut perspektif Interaksi Manusia dengan Komputer (IMK) �Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Dia memberi penekanan koncepts kualiti concepts of quality (high quality sounds and video images), nilai kecantikan atau tarikan estetik aesthetics (appeal), kemudahagihan distributiveness (high storage capacity), berpusat kepenggunaan user-centeredness (effective interaction, easy to use),

�Any computer application that employs a videodisk, images from a CD-ROM, uses high quality sound, or uses high quality video images on screen may be termed a multimedia application. Such interfaces are often aesthetically appealing and where high capacity storage devices such as CD-ROM are used, can provide effective interactions for the user, by acting as very large databases or storehouses of information with dense but easy-to use cross referencing and indexing (p.225).

5. Druin (1996), perekacipta dan pembangun teknologi untuk kanak-kanak melihat definisi dari sudut bahasa multi and media. Di sini dia memberi pandang kontekstual mengenai apa yang dikatakan multimedia pada masa dulu dan apa dia pula yang dikatakan multimedia pada masa sekarang.

6. Jones (2003) melihat multimedia sebagai

�� The integration of multiple media forms, including text, music, spoken words, video, illustrated graphics, and still photographs, to communicate unified messages that, ideally at least, are also interactive�(p.329)

Baginya multimedia digital menjadi �hypermedia� disebabkan oleh penyangkut hiperteks �hypertext linkages� yang menonjol kegunnaannya bersama perkembangan Internet.

7. Bagi Cawkell (1996) multimedia bermaksud:

� �The processing and presentation of information in two or more media�, so computers which are capable of handling text and simple graphics, �could be called �multi-media computers��many extra attributes have been developed that the word now usually means the processing and presentation of at least text, graphics, and pictures, if not animation and motion video, usually in colour with sound�many systems and activities�including hypertext, image processing, compression systems, colour electronics, input technologies like scanners, cameras, and picture frame grabbers, output technologies such as displays and reprography, transmission systems, Virtual Reality, and visualization. Compact Disk media and techniques, electronic books and journals, and videoconferencing are multimedia, as are computer games and home shopping.� (p.3)

8. Kita dapati pelbagai penulis mendefinisikan multimedia mengikut disiplin yang diikutinya. Gonzalez (2000) pernah melafazkan kelohan kesusahan beliau dalam mencari kurikula yang terbaik dalam arena academia

Ask for a definition of �multimedia�, and you�ll likely never to hear the same description twice. So, how do we go about teaching it?� (p.89)

9. Bagi penulis, Normahdiah S. Said (2004) secara metaforiknya,

�Multimedia behaves like the �mitosis� phenomenon of a human cell; it divides and multiplies but still maintains its genetic characteristics of multi-functionality. The concept was created with the intention of the exploitation of the possibilities of integrating these multifunctional media using text, sound, animation and video imaging, etc. in one application, platform or environment. The concept has been assimilated into computer technologies through computer desktops as standalone CDs, through on-line systems of the Web and through the digital age of the mobile phones. Its birth and creation has affected many disciplines in and around computer technology symbiotically and therefore contributed a lot to the multidisciplinary nature in building, creating, designing and using it� (Said (2004))

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